The fetal circulation (Fig. 1) is markedly different from the adult circulation. In the fetus, gas exchange does not occur in the lungs but in the pl. La circulation fœtale persistante (CFP), également désignée hypertension artérielle pulmonaire persistante du nouveau-né, se définit comme une persistance. Foetal Circulation. Prior to birth the foetus is not capable of respiratory function and thus relies on the maternal circulation to carry out gas.

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Journal page Archives Contents list. Other common causes are diaphragmatic hernia 24hyaline membrane disease 25sepsis syndrome 22 and pulmonary thromboembolism The combined effects of these events may result in fluid retention.

Complications with its use include systemic hypotension, gastrointestinal bleeding, increased gastrointestinal secretions and acute tubular necrosis 39 These tests are not very reliable.

This rise in hematocrit may result in increased viscosity and sludging of pulmonary circulation, which in turn cause hypoxia and ventilation profusion mismatch, thereby increasing PVR and resulting in higher pressures on the right side relative to the left side The continuation of this blood flow is into the left ventricle, and from there it is pumped through the aorta into the body.

Foetal Circulation – Anatomy & Physiology – WikiVet English

Retrieved from ” https: Arteries Dorsal aorta Aortic arches Aortic sac. A positive partial pressure of arterial oxygen PaO 2 gradient greater than 15 mmHg between the right radial artery and the descending aorta blood suggests PFC, but it is not present in every case In a review of this size it is impossible to cover all the possible abnormalities associated with congenital heart disease CHD.

With the clamping of the umbilical cord and the cessation of blood flow, pressures in the portal sinus decrease. If the obstruction to pulmonary blood flow is very severe, blood flow to the lungs circulagion be supplied via the DA from the descending aorta i. A correction has been published: On the other hand, the right ventricle could also not develop correctly when no blood would flow via the right circulayion.


Noninvasive evaluation of pulmonary hypertension by a pulsed Doppler technique. The P 50 value is 3.

The term usually encompasses the entire fetoplacental circulationwhich includes the umbilical cord and the blood vessels within the placenta that carry fetal blood. Effects of inhaled nitric oxide on pulmonary edema and neutrophil accumulation in severe experimental hyaline membrane disease.

National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Transposition of the great arteries.

Fetal circulation

Maternal ingestion of cyclooxygenase inhibitors, such as acetylsalicylic acid, indomethacin, salicylates and naproxen, can induce constriction of the fetal arterial duct in utero Factors which may contribute to the physiological closure of the ductus arteriosus include the increased oxygen content of the blood passing through it and the production of bradykinin, which causes smooth muscle contraction.

Free Radic Biol Med. The placenta must therefore receive deoxygenated blood from the fetal systemic organs and return its oxygen rich venous drainage to the fetal systemic arterial circulation.

This causes the muscle in the sinus wall near the ductus venosus to contract This leads the neonate to revert to a fetal pattern of circulation with one major difference—there is no placenta to provide oxygenation. See multiple choice questions 81— Top of the page – Article Outline.

The fetus, in late gestation appears to have a limited ability to augment its cardiac output when given added filling volume. Fetal circulation The fetal circulatory system includes three shunts to divert blood from undeveloped and partially functioning organs, as well as blood supply to and from the placenta.

The blood from the right ventricle is pumped to the pulmonary trunk where, due to the high resistance in the collapsed foetal lungs, a larger volume passes through the ductus arteriosus to the caudal aorta.


At one time, cardiac catheterization and dye demonstration of the right to left shunt was the most conclusive diagnostic test. Thus, in the neonate, the presence of HbF has the effect of impairing oxygen extraction at the tissue level. On the other hand the removal of the placenta causes an increase in the resistance of the systemic circulation and hence an increase in the pressure of the left side of the heart.

The foetal circulation of the lamb.

Several vasoactive substances are made endogenously. However, included below is a brief discussion of a few types of CHD that helps illustrate how the change from fetal circulation to neonatal circulation can have significant effects.

Persistent fetal circulation

It occurs more commonly in males, and appears to occur more frequently at higher altitudes Use of cardiotonic therapy in the management of infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. Multicenter comparison of conventional venoarterial access versus venovenous double-lumen catheter access in newborn infants undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

The two cardiac shunts: Studies on circultion circulation in the neonatal period. Circulattion reason for the failure is that nitric oxide is inactivated after binding to hemoglobin and, thus, does not decrease systemic pressures.

Surfactant replacement therapy circuation meconium aspiration syndrome. Sedation and analgesia are required for infants on ECMO. Much is known also of fetal circulation in other animals, especially livestock and model organisms such as mice, through the health sciences, veterinary scienceand life sciences generally.

The blood then moves to the right atrium of the heart.