DESIGNING TASKS FOR THE COMMUNICATIVE CLASSROOM DAVID NUNAN PDF

PDF | On Jan 1, , Peter Robinson and others published Review of DAVID NUNAN: Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom. Cambridge. : Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom (Cambridge Language Teaching Library) (): David Nunan: Books. DESIGNING TASKS FOR THE COMMUNICATIVE CLASSROOM. David Nunan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Pp. x +

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Communication strategies These are activities designed to encourage learners to practise commu- nication strategies such classrooom paraphrasing, borrowing or inventing words, using gesture, asking for feedback, simplifying.

At various points readers will find that they are invited to reflect on key points and questions, and relate these to their own situation. Methods tend to exist as package deals, each with its own set of principles and operating procedures, each with nuhan own set of preferred learning tasks. Identifying factual inconsistencies in given narrative or descriptive accounts. Spoken language, on the other hand, consists of short, often fragmentary utterances, in a range of pronunciations.

Con- versely, being able to remember the actual words of a spoken message does not necessarily mean that the message itself has been comprehended. Native-speaker output is not very closely adjusted to foreigners’ level.

Desiging in syllabus design. Cambridge Univer- sity Press. These specifications have variously taken the shape of lists of forms, or desiginng, or notions, or particular skills. You want cesigning to do five of the things below some time during that month. Conversational listening involves the ability to: The debate over whether tasks should have a real-world or pedagogic rationale is presented and we shall look at how tasks are related to the wider curriculum through the specification of goals.

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It tends to be the custom, in books of this sort, to append a list of questions to the end of each chapter. Clark proposes seven broad communicative activity types these are expansions of the three communicative goal types we looked at in 3.

We might illustrate such a process as follows: Are there then ways of avoiding activities involving mere copying and mechanical reproduction, even with low level learners? When you dacid made your decisions, discuss your choices and your reasons with your group. Needless to say, any shortcomings in the book are mine alone.

Activities which focus on meaning are designed to njnan learners to process the content of the text through the various types of non-linguistic and linguistic responses they might make to the text. Interpreting sets of rules e. Toward an interactive-compensatory model of individual differences in the development of reading fluency.

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What aspects of communicative language use do you think learners might practise in carrying out these activities? At the sentence level these include control of content, format, sentence structure, vocabulary, punctuation, spelling and letter formation. Stories and dialogues On there Mummy v?

Principles for the selection of content – what is to be learned and taught. Note that the goals are not necessarily mutually exclusive, and that there may be tasks which cover more than one goal. A set of model sentences and a list of unpunctuated sentences.

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Level 1, draft nuna edition; P. Yet all people have to be taught how to write. Lockwood The Australian English course: Means of communication Two or more people, usually facing each other, paying attention and responding to what is said, rather than to how correctly it is said.

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We desjgning focus on this issue by considering the place of grammar. But while this might seem terribly obvious or logical, there is con- troversy over the extent to which classroom tasks should be made to mirror real-world tasks. Bye, boys, see you later! Language is now generally seen as a dynamic resource for the creation of meaning.

In the next section, we shall consider this distinction in relation to the speaking skill. In Long’s approach to course design, tasks start out as pedagogic, but gradually work towards the in-class simulation of real-world behaviours.

Not all of these learn to read. Many may be justified both in real-world and pedagogic terms. In synthetic terms, we shall find, lessons and units of work will consist, among other things, of sequences of tasks, and the coherence of such lessons or units will depend on the extent to which the tasks have been integrated and sequenced in some principled way.

While in some ways the top-down, bottom-up distinction corresponds to the distinction between form-focused and meaning-focused tasks, there is no one-to-one correspondence. For example, learners in small groups Structured Overview: The result is of intrinsic interest or value to the participants.

Yet it could be argued that the learner’s attention c,assroom focused as much on the meaning as the form.

We shall look at an example of these activities later in the section.