Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques (ENMOD). ENMOD. Entry into force: 5 October. ENMOD Review Conference – Preparatory Committee () . #Gambia ratifies the Cluster Munitions Convention, bringing the number of states parties to The Convention defines environmental modification techniques as changing — through the deliberate manipulation of natural processes — the dynamics.

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Such a complaint should include all relevant information as well as all possible evidence supporting ItS validity. Thereafter it shall enter into force for any remaining State Party on the date of deposit of its instrument of acceptance.

COP 21, ENMOD and the 6th November : Peace and War at Stake

Any State which does not sign the Convention before its entry into force in accordance with paragraph 3 of this article may accede to it at any time. Welcome Parties’ commitment to observe their obligations vis-a-vis non parties. Echoing, to an extent, Finland and The Netherlands, Canada said: The Depositary shall promptly inform all signatory and acceding States of convntion date of each signature, the date of deposit of each instrument of ratification or accession and the date of the entry into force of this Convention and of any amendments thereto, as well as of the receipt of other notices.

The conference shall review the operation of the Convention with a view to ensuring that its purposes and provisions are being realized, and shall in particular examine the effectiveness of the provisions of paragraph 1 of article I in eliminating the dangers of military or any other hostile use of environmental modification techniques.

Any State Party to this Convention which has reason to enmdo that any other State Party is acting in breach of obligations deriving from the provisions of the Convention may lodge a complaint with the Security Council of the United Nations.

International humanitarian law has two main instruments to protect the environment during hostilities. In JulyUSA and USSR agreed to hold bilateral discussions on measures to overcome the danger of the use of environmental modification techniques for snmod purposes and three subsequent rounds of discussions in and The first Review Conference took place in Geneva in September Taking advantage of the gap between the urgent need to fight against global warming and the weak measures provided by governments, climate engineering or geoengineering — defined as the deliberate large-scale technological action on the climate system to counter global warming or mitigate certain effectsclimate engineering is increasingly considered by some scientists as a possible response to the challenge posed to the planet.

Secretary-General of the United Nations. Treaties, States Parties and Commentaries. Each State Party to this Convention undertakes not to engage in military or any other hostile use of environmental modification techniques having widespread, long-lasting or severe effects as the means of destruction, damage or injury to any other State Party.


The Conference comvention that environmental modification research, as well as its use, ” should be dedicated solely to peaceful ends. However, it was disappointed that the Conference had been unable to agree to convene an expert meeting to discuss future confidence building mechanisms and verification mechanisms, which could not but enhance the Convention.

The Final Document of the Second Review Conference provided that if no Review Conference were held before the Depositary would be requested to solicit the views of all States Parties concerning the convening of such a Conference in accordance with paragraph 3 of article III of the Convention.

Indeed, it was Iraq’s torching of oil wells – a very low tech convenyion with devastating environmental consequences – that provided political momentum to convene the Conference. This decision more firmly established a broader interpretation of the scope the convention and put to rest the minority view sometimes promoted cpnvention the US that ENMOD was manily a “future tech” or “high tech” convention.

These are not enough but among them are the military powers: Many states do not regard this as a complete ban on the use of herbicides in warfare, such as Agent Orangebut it does require case-by-case consideration.

The course of action proposed by the Netherlands and Finland was to clarify Article II the definition of environmental modification techniques and the relevant Understandings.

All member countries of the European Union have ratified or signed, with the exception of four: The Depositary or his representative shall serve as the Chairman of the Committee. Retrieved 24 August Palais des Nations, Geneva 10, Switzerland. However, to respond to concerns cknvention by the prowess of the sorcerer’s apprentices, the law of armed conflict goes beyond this mere invitation to protection. Article X This Convention, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall send duly certified copies thereof to the Governments of the signatory and acceding States.

The Convention was opened for signature at Geneva on 18 May The problem of artificial modification of the environment for military or other hostile purposes was brought to the international agenda in the early s. An advance was achieved on the area of research and development, which was never explicitly enmos by the Convention. Article IV Each State Party to conventlon Convention undertakes to take any measures it considers necessary in accordance with its constitutional processes to prohibit eenmod prevent any activity in violation of the provisions of the Convention anywhere under its jurisdiction or control.


Pursuant to its article VII, the Conveention is of unlimited duration.

At the very last, we need to thoroughly canvass what measures might be conventiln to that end. Any State Party to this Convention may propose amendments to the Convention.

Environmental Modification Convention

However, a call for broader adherence will not achieve any more than a similar urging by the First Review Conference unless is accompanied by action that addresses the fundamental cause of low adherence to the ENMOD Convention, its perceived irrelevance to the real security of States.

The Convention now has 77 States Parties. Retrieved from ” https: A propos de cette page Auteur s: In witness whereof, the undersigned, being duly authorized thereto, have signed this Convention Done at Geneva, on the 18 day of May It is for this reason Canada strongly supports the creation of a Consultative Committee of Experts… to examine the provisions of the Convention, with a view of determining the effectiveness of their application in relation to its objectives, and to identifying areas for improvement.

International Committee of the Red Cross.

COP 21, ENMOD and the 6th November : Peace and War at Stake | Grip

Once again there were proposals to abolish the troika. Nor is it to remind everybody of the obvious: Stating that under existing international customary law it is already prohibited to cause significant damage to cnvention environment of other States or areas beyond national jurisdiction.

This page was last edited on 28 Januaryat It also provides that at intervals of not less than five years thereafter, a majority of the States Parties to the Convention may obtain, by submitting a proposal to this effect to the Depositary, the convening of a conference with the same objectives, and that if no conference has been convened within ten years following the conclusion of a previous conference, the Depositary shall solicit the views of all States Parties to the Convention, concerning the convening of such a conference.

Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Annex to the Convention Consultative Committee of Experts 1. For the purposes set forth in paragraph 1 of this article, the Depositary shall within one month of the receipt of a request from any State Party to this Convention, convene a Consultative Committee of Experts. Research will then expand as the Vietnam War unfolds.

In that connection, it supported the initiative for the convening of a Consultative Committee of Experts, as mentioned in the Final Declaration.

Research and development are not prohibited, nor is the use of such techniques against a non-State Party.